1929 – by interesting coincidence that year was named in Soviet historiography “a year of Great Break”, because in 1929 the Soviet government finally renounced the previous (less radical and more liberal) economic policy and accelerated collectivization of agriculture directed against the Russian peasantry. The reaction to this policy was the wave of peasants’ revolts in many regions of the USSR during 1929–1931.
In his interviews in the 1980s, the former Foreign Minister under Stalin, V. Molotov, said that he considers the Communist victory against Russian peasantry during collectivization as an event of greater importance than even the victory in WWII. So, he perceived what happened in these years as critical, coming at a juncture when the destiny of Communist dominance in Russia was at stake more than in any other moment, the situation in which the overthrow of the Communist power was the most possible. After the peasant revolts were crushed and the collectivization took place (1931–1932), the Russian peasantry, the backbone of Old Russia was broken, economically, politically, culturally…
1929 – was also the year of the economic crisis in the USA, which began in October of that year, soon after October 13. This economic crisis led into a depression, which, according to some researchers, because of the wrong policies implemented by the US administrations of Herbert Hoover and Franklin D. Roosevelt, became the “Great Depression” (interestingly, Hoover worked before in the American Relief Administration linked with help to post-revolutionary Russia and Roosevelt used councils of economic experts of the Keynesian school, who admired and used Soviet experiences – so, here we again meet “errors of Russia”). The Great Depression influenced the economic and political landscape of the whole world.
1929 – was also exactly the year in which one Italian prisoner began to write his Prison Notebooks. That man was the founder of the Italian Communist Party, Antonio Gramsci, and these notebooks served as the basis for Cultural Marxism, a plague devastating the modern West and in many ways modern Russia and the whole world.
But Gramsci was not an inventor of this ideology. He used the experience of the Bolsheviks that he received while living in Soviet Russia (in Moscow, not far from here) in 1922 – 1923. Here, he not only married a Russian revolutionary from the family of Lenin’s friends, met Lenin himself and watched the implementation of Communist economic policies, but also watched how the Bolsheviks sought to change the traditional culture.
- the consequences of the legalization of abortions (the Soviet state was probably the first state in Europe to legalize them);
- the preparation of the first edition of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, which proclaimed the Soviet power’s toleration of homosexuality (unlike in Western “Capitalist” states);
- the parades of naked men and women under the red banner on the streets of Moscow (later organized in the Bolshevik organization “Down with shame!” (Сергианство), who proclaimed that shame is a “bourgeois prejudice” and the human individual is “only an animal”;
- watched the debauchery in Bolshevik Russia, which followed after the spread of such theories like the famous “water glass theory” of the revolutionary and feminist Alexandra Kollontai (later the first Soviet woman ambassador, who remarkably did not fall victim of the Stalin purges of the Old Bolsheviks and comfortably lived under Stalin’s rule till the end of her life in 1952), which proclaimed that there is no such thing as love and that the relations between men and women are “only a physiological necessity”, “like drinking a glass of water”, so, they can be satisfied with any person, in any time, etc.
All these things fascinated Gramsci and were used by him in his development of Cultural Marxism. “Russia will spread her errors…”